Arizona’s law banning Mexican-American studies is constitutional, judge rules
February 25, 2014
A court upheld most provisions of an Arizona state law used to prohibit a controversial Mexican-American Studies curriculum in Tucson on Friday.
The ruling dealt a blow to supporters of the suspended classes, who had hoped the courts would overturn a 2010 law championed by Arizona conservatives determined to shut down the unconventional courses.
“I was really surprised at the decision,” Jose Gonzalez, a former teacher of Tucson’s suspended Mexican-American Studies classes, told The Huffington Post. “But as a student and teacher of history, I know in civil rights cases like this there’s always setbacks.”
The experimental Tucson curriculum was offered to students in different forms in some of the local elementary, middle and high schools. It emphasized critical thinking and focused on Mexican-American literature and perspectives. Supporters lauded the program, pointing to increased graduation rates, high student achievement and a state-commissioned independent audit that recommended expanding the classes.
But conservative opponents accused the teachers of encouraging students to adopt left-wing ideas and resent white people, a charge the teachers deny. Aiming squarely at Tucson’s Mexican-American Studies program, the Arizona legislature passed HB 2281 — a law banning courses that promote the overthrow of the U.S. government, foster racial resentment, are designed for students of a particular ethnic group or that advocate ethnic solidarity.
Federal Judge Wallace Tashima said the plaintiffs failed to show the law was too vague, broad or discriminatory, or that it violated students’ first amendment rights.
The news wasn’t all bad for supporters of the suspended classes. Tashima ruled that the section of the law prohibiting courses tailored to serve students of a particular ethnicity was unconstitutional.
Originally filed in October of 2010 on behalf of the program’s former teachers, who lost standing because they are public employees, the case is currently brought by former Mexican-American Studies student Nicholas Dominguez and his mother Margarita Dominguez. They will likely appeal the ruling to the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals within the next 30 days, their lawyer Richard Martinez told The Huffington Post.
“This case is not over,” Martinez said. “It’s not only important to Arizona, but to the country as a whole that this statute be addressed.”
Arizona Attorney General Tom Horne began a campaign to eliminate the Mexican-American Studies program from Tucson Unified School District in 2006, when he was serving as the state’s Superintendent of Public Education.
Angered that Mexican-American civil rights leader Dolores Huerta had said that “Republicans hate Latinos” in a speech to Tucson students, Horne sent Deputy Superintendent Margaret Dugan, a Latina Republican, to give an alternate view. But the intellectual exercise turned confrontational when students, who said they were not allowed to ask Dugan questions, sealed their mouths with tape and walked out of the assembly room.
“As superintendent of schools, I have visited over 1,000 schools and I’ve never seen students be disrespectful to a teacher in that way,” Horne said in an interview last year.
The final product of his efforts was House Bill 2281, which then-State Sen. John Huppenthal (R) helped pilot through the Arizona legislature. Huppenthal, who succeeded Horne as state superintendent of schools, then found Tucson out of compliance with the new law and ordered the district to shut Mexican-American Studies down or lose 10 percent of its annual funding — some $14 million over the fiscal year. In January of 2012, the school board complied, voting 4 to 1 to discontinue the classes.
The decision drew national attention as administrators plucked Latino literature that once belonged to the curriculum from classrooms, explicitly banning seven titles from instruction.Anti-Xican@ racism from the bench. Support and save Xican@ and Latin@ Studies programs.
"If white people are so privileged why is there a Black Entertainment Network and no White Entertainment Network?"
"Men don’t have privilege, there are women’s only gyms!"
"Why isn’t there a campus centre for straight/cis people!?"
SAME REASONS WHY IN MARIO KART YOU DON’T GET BLUE SHELLS OR LIGHTNING BOLTS WHEN YOU’RE ALREADY IN FIRST PLACE, ASSBAG.
This is honestly the best explanation I have ever seen.
Who are you
Whats your favorite color
Favorite ice cream flavor
Do you have a cat
reblogging again bc I already got some from really cute people, but it makes me unreasonably happy to read these from you SO KEEP ON SENDING THEM
MAKE ME UNREASONABLY HAPPY PLEASE
The Rumblr’s in-house astrologer, Madame Clairevoyant, presents her latest dispatch from the stars:
Aries: This week, the world around you will expand, it will open up, it will give you all the space you need. It might feel a little lonely and it might feel strange and it might feel like you’re living high above the ground, but the air you breathe will feel clean, and the light will feel clear and kind. This week, you’ll have enough space to grow into yourself and enough space to grow into your world, enough air to breathe freely and deep and enough air to laugh and shout and sing.
Taurus: This is a week for getting free, for unsticking yourself from the heavy things and the poisonous things that live around you, that have crept into your bones and into your dreams. This is a week for cutting away the doubts that have wrapped themselves around you like vines and for throwing away the ones that sit heavy in your pockets. Quit the things you need to quit, this week, and marvel at the bright self that remains, marvel at how light you feel, marvel at all the fresh sweet ways you can move.
Gemini: Some kind of breeze is going to sweep through your life this week, gentle enough that it won’t make you cold, but strong enough to stir things up a little, to clean out the mustiest corners in your house, to clean out the stuffiest corners of your head. Some kind of breeze is going to blow through your life this week, just enough for the air you breathe to feel fresh again, just enough to remind you that the world is in motion, to remind you that your heart is full.
Cancer: The best thing you can do this week is get so dreamy; the best thing you can do this week is let your imagination run strong and wild. It’s a week for believing in your own dreams and a week for believing that every good thing is possible. Go to the movies and let your mind wander in the dark. Go to the ocean and let your mind wander in the sun. This week, you’ll have so much to think about all day long. You’ll have so to dream about in so many different colors at night.
Leo: This week, your desires might run up against the boundaries of what’s possible, they might crash up against the borders of the world as it exists. The world might feel like it’s too small for you, like it’s not enough, but you can make it bigger; you can make space for yourself if you want to, if you don’t hide. Try to be honest with yourself, try to be open with the people you know, try to be brave enough to own even your deepest, most tender desires. Listen to Beyoncé and let your bravery carry you through this week.
Virgo: When you look at the moon this week, when you look at the clouds, when you look at your own sweet face, you’re going to see so much desire reflected back to you, so much need, so much longing, strange and bright. It’s going to be easy to want everything, every single joy there is, every good thing. It’s going to be easy to get carried away, to get lost in the wanting. This is not a bad thing. Let your desires move you, let them shake the ground under your feet, let them burn you up.
Libra: This week you’re going to be so full of energy, and your brain will feel so sharp, and your body will feel so electric. Try to be as unserious as you can. Try to choose your friends over your work, try to spend time with the people who make you laugh until you can’t even breathe. It’s a week for feelings of lightness, even in a heavy world, it’s a week for bright and illogical feelings of joy, as if these feelings could heal you, as if they could save you.
Scorpio: This week, especially when you feel bored and especially when you feel dull, try to accept all the invitations that the world extends to you. Try to take every chance you’re offered, try to grab at every opportunity like it might be the one to change your whole life. Talk to the people you meet. Listen to their stories and their jokes and their songs. Trust that they’ll have secrets to tell you; trust that they’ll have things to show you. Go out to the weird parties, go to the weird shows, follow the paths that open up.
Sagittarius: This week, the world you move through is going to feel complicated and strange and vast, made up of so many different pieces, different materials, different feelings all woven together. And this week, the world inside of you might seem just as strange, just as big, just as unknowable. Try to feel all the weird tangled knots in your head and try not to even worry about them. This is not a week for making sense, but a week for letting life’s messiness shine, for letting it sing to you, for letting it brighten your days.
Capricorn: This week is going to be about getting the things you need to survive; this week is going to be about finding the life you want. This week, you’re going to be brave and you’re going to be unstoppable, in ways you can’t even know, in ways you can’t even expect. Listen to songs about defiance, listen to songs about shining as bright as the sun. Stoke the fire in your head and in your guts. This week, you can burn through everything that would keep you down. You can light your own way. You can keep yourself warm.
Aquarius: This week is for feeling your roots, for feeling your history, for remembering the things that hold you in place, that make you solid. This week is for feeling the full weight of the life you’ve lived so far, and the full wild range of futures that are available to you if you need them enough, if you do the work. This week, tell the stories about yourself that are truest, tell the stories about yourself that nourish you, tell the stories about yourself that can keep you safe and the ones that can let you move forward.
Pisces: This week will be best if you work on taking small steps, if you work on being patient, if you work to believe in your own future. This week, the future will stretch out before you, all sunny and wide like a highway, like an open field, so big that it can disorient you, so bright and golden it can make you dizzy with desire. Just keep moving, just keep your feet on the ground. Work on the projects that will take you a very long time; work on the things you love best.
Today’s image was made specially for Madame Clairevoyant by Jen May.
packing and moving is annoying and boring and i just want some fucking company.
but also i want some very specific company. but really though i want to just go make out with this very specific company and ignore everything else in the world.
probably why i established a boundary already saying how i need to be single right now.
i dont want to be single. yes i do. but i also want snuggles and kisses.
im getting to a crazy place already.
- Rob: I want to lovingly throw you on the ground.
- Me: ...I feel like that would hurt cause this is concrete. maybe grass?
- Rob: I could lovingly throw you onto a pile of puppies.
- Me: *SQUEALS IN DELIGHT*